Morphological characterization and germination of Syagrus schizophylla (Mart.) Glass. (ARECACEAE)

  • Rômulo André Beltrame Northern Rio de Janeiro University - UENF
  • Janie Mendes Jasmim Northern Rio de Janeiro University - UENF
  • Henrique Duarte Vieira Northern Rio de Janeiro University - UENF

Abstract

The interest in Syagrus schizophylla as an ornamental palm tree and the demand for conservation and preservation of the species led to this research. The objective was to study the physiological characteristics of its germination at different temperatures, as well as the morphological and biometrical characterization of diaspores and seedlings at the initial stages of growth and development. The research was divided into two experiments. In the first one, the aim was to identify the water absorption phases of seeds during germination under five scarification treatments as follows: intact diaspores, scarified diaspores, diaspores with endocarp rupture and intact seeds. In the second experiment, germination was tested at 25, 30 e 25 - 35 ºC; the first germination count, seedling emergence, abnormal seedlings, non-germinated seeds, the emergence curve, the emergence speed index and the mean time of emergence were evaluated. Afterwards, the morphological and biometrical characteristics of diaspores and seedlings were described. The water absorption curve observed under the different scarification treatments showed different water absorption patterns. Emergence percentages were 53, 61 and 47% at 25, 30 and 25 - 35 ºC, respectively. The highest emergence speed index was obtained at 30 ºC. The mean time of emergence was 30 days, approximately, under all the temperatures tested. The diaspores showed a great variability in both shape and size, presenting a globular to ovoid shape with an average length of 2.44 cm and an average width of 1.39 cm. The germination can be classified as hypogeal crypto cotyledonal of the remote-tubular type.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Rômulo André Beltrame, Northern Rio de Janeiro University - UENF
Plant Science
Janie Mendes Jasmim, Northern Rio de Janeiro University - UENF
Plant Science
Henrique Duarte Vieira, Northern Rio de Janeiro University - UENF
Plant Science

References

Baskin, C.C, Baskin, J.M. 2014. What kind of seed dormancy might palms have? Seed Science Research 24:17–22.

Batista, G.S., Costa, R.S., Gimenes, R., Pivetta, K.F.L., Môro, F.V. 2011a. Aspectos morfológicos dos diásporos e das plântulas de Syagrus oleracea (Mart.) Becc – Arecaceae. Comunicata Scientiae 2:170-176.

Batista, G.S., Mazzini, R.B., Gimenes, R., Pritchard, H.W., Pivetta, K.F.L. 2011b. Effects of substrate and mechanical scarification on the germination of Syagrus oleracea (Arecaceae) seeds. Seed Science and Technology 39:649-654.

Bewley, J.D., Black, M. 1994. Seeds: physiology of development and germination. New York: Plenum Press. 445 p.

Brasil. 2009. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Regras para análise de sementes. Brasília. 399 p.

Carvalho, N.M., NAGAGAWA, J. 2012. Sementes: ciência, tecnologia e produção. Jaboticabal: FUNEP, 590p.

Carvalho, V.S., Ribeiro, L.M., Lopes, P.S.N., Agostinho, C.O., Matias, L.J., Mercadante-Simões, M.O., Correia, L.N.F. 2015. Dormancy is modulated by seed structures in palms of the cerrado biome. Australian Journal of Botany 63:444-454.

Fior, C.S., De Souza, P.V.D., Schwarz, S.F. 2013. Emergência de plântulas de Butia odorata (Barb. Rodr.) noblick em casa de vegetação. Revista Árvore 37:503-510.

Goudel, F., Shibata, M., Coelho, C.M.M., Miller, P.R.M. 2013. Fruit biometry and seed germination of Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassm. Acta Botanica Brasilica 27:147-154.

Labouriau, L.G. 1983. A germinação das sementes. Washington,USA. 174 p.

Leitman, P., Soares, k., Henderson, A., Noblick, L., Martins, R.C. 2015. Syagrus in Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://www.floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/ floradobrasil/FB15746. .

Luz, P.B., Pivetta, K.F.L., Neves, L.G., Sobrinho, S.P., Barelli, M.A.A. 2012. Caracterização morfológica do diásporo e da plântula de Archontophoenix cunninghamii (Arecaceae). Comunicata Scientiae, 3:244-248.

Maciel, N., Briceño, A. 2009. Effect of fruit ripening, seed scarification and temperature on seedling emergence of Syagrus stenopetala Burret. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía 26:196-211.

Maguire, J.D. 1962. Speeds of germination-aid selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science 2:176-177.

Maia, J., Dekkers, B.J.W., Dolle, M.J., Ligterink, W., Hilhorst, H.W.M. 2014. Abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity regulates desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis seeds. The New Phytologyst 203:81-93.

Marcos Filho, J. 2005. Fisiologia de sementes de plantas cultivadas. Piracicaba: FEALQ, 495 p.

Masetto, T.E., Scalon, S.P.Q., Brito, J.Q., Moreira, F.H., Ribeiro, D.M., Rezende, R.K.S. 2012. Germinação e armazenamento de sementes de carandá (Copernicia alba). Cerne 18:541-546.

Martins, C.C., Nakagawa, J., Bovi, M.L. 2009. Avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de açaí. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 31:231-235.

Medeiros, M.J., Oliveira, M.T., Willadino, L., Santos, M.G. 2015. Overcoming seed dormancy using gibberellic acid and the performance of young Syagrus coronata plants under severe drought stress and recovery. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 97:278-286.

Mengarda, L.H.G., Lopes, J.C. 2012. Qualidade de sementes e desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de pimenta malagueta e sua relação com a posição de coleta de frutos. Revista Brasileira de Sementes 34:644-650.

Mira, S., Hill, L.M., Gonzáles-Benito, M.E., Ibánez, M.A., Walters, C. 2016. Volatile emission in dry seeds as a way to probe chemical reactions during initial asymptomatic deterioration. Journal of Experimental Botany 67:1783-1793.

Nagel, M., Borner, A. 2010. The longevity of crop seeds stored under ambiente conditions. Seed Science Research 20:1-12.

Neves, S.C., Ribeiro, L.M., Cunha, I.R.G., Pimenta, M.A.S., Mercadante-Simões, M.O. 2013. Diaspore structure and germination ecophysiology of the babassu palm (Attalea vitrivir). Flora 208:68–78.

Pinto, J.F.N., Reis, E.F., Netto, A.P.C., Pinto, J.F.N., Assunção, H.F., Nunes, E.F. 2012. Efeito de diferentes tratamentos na superação da dormência de sementes da palmeira Syagrus oleracea Becc. Cerne 18:487-493.

Prieto, P.V., Messina, T. Syagrus schizophylla in Lista Vermelha da flora brasileira versão 2012. Centro Nacional de Conservação da Flora. 2012.

http://cncflora.jbrj.gov.br/portal/pt-br/profile/Syagrus schizophylla .

Ribeiro, L.M., Souza, P.P., Rodrigues Jr, A.G., Garcia, Q.S. 2011. Overcoming dormancy in macaw palm diaspores, a tropical species with potential for use as bio-fuel. Seed Science and Technology 39:303–317.

Rubio Neto, A., Silva, F.G., Sales, J.F., Reis, E.F., Silva, M.V.V., Souza, A.L. 2012. Effect of drying and soaking fruits and seeds on germination of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata [Jacq.] Loddiges ex Mart.). Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy 34:179-185.

Santos-Moura, S.S., Gonçalves, E.P., Melo, L.D.F.A., Paiva, L.G., Silva, T.M. 2016. Morphology of fruits, diaspores, seeds, seedlings, and saplings of Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc. Bioscience Journal 32:652-660.

Teixeira, M.T., Duarte, H.D., Partelli, F.L., Silva, R.F. 2011. Despolpamento, armazenamento e temperatura na germinação de sementes de palmeira real australiana. Pesquisa Agropecuária Tropical 41:378-384.

Tomlinson, P.B. 1960. Essays on the morphology of Palms. Germination and seedling. Principes 4:56-61.

Tomlinson, P.B.1961. Anatomy of the Monocotyledons. II. Palmae. In: Metcafe C. R (ed.) The Morphology and Anatomy of Palms. Claredon Press, Oxford, USA. p. 308-311.

Veselova, T.V., Veselovsky, V.A., Obroucheva, N.V. 2015. Deterioration mechanisms in air-dry pea seeds during early aging. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 87:133-139.

Vidigal, D.S., Willems, L., Arkel, J.V., Dekkers, B.J.W., Hilhorst, H.W.M., Bentsink, L. 2016. Galactinol as marker for seed longevity. Plant Science, 246:112-118.

Viji, V., Ratheesh Chandra, P., Nabeesa Salim., Puthur, J.T. 2015. Germination-Associated Morphological and Anatomical Changes in Corypha Umbraculifera L. Seeds. Phytomorphology 65:11-17.

Walters, C., Ballesteros, D., Vertucci, V.A. 2010. Structural mechanics of seed deterioration: standing the test of time. Plant Science, 179:565-573.

Published
17-04-2019
How to Cite
Beltrame, R., Jasmim, J., & Vieira, H. (2019). Morphological characterization and germination of Syagrus schizophylla (Mart.) Glass. (ARECACEAE). Comunicata Scientiae, 10(1), 54-64. https://doi.org/10.14295/cs.v10i1.2997
Section
Original Article